Saving Some Links – Annotated Bibliography

I’ve had these saved for a while but I keep forgetting to put them up.

McLeod, Saul. “Forgetting.” Simply Psychology. Simply Psychology, 2008. Web. 20 Apr. 2013.

This is an article regarding the multiple theories of memory decay. Ranging from the Trace Decay Theory of Forgetting to the Displacement Theory, the website explains the possible reasonings and causes for memories to slowly fade and disappear.

Human Memory: Atkinson-Shiffrin Model.” Human Memory: Atkinson-Shiffrin Model. Indiana University–Purdue University Fort Wayne, n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2013.

This page explains one of the most well-known models for the process of memory formation: the Atkinson-Shiffrin Model. This model claims that all memories first start as information processed by our sensory organs. The information that is given more attention to will proceed to the short-term store where they will last for about 15-30 seconds. Afterwards, if given attention and actively rehearsed, select memories in the STM will proceed to the long-term storage where they can last from minutes to a lifetime.

Anthony, Sebastian. “ExtremeTech.” ExtremeTech. Extreme Tech, 23 Mar. 2012. Web. 26 Apr. 2013.

This article talks about the findings of MIT researchers and delves into the newly uncovered fact that memories are located in specific neurons. Triggering a small cluster of these neurons can trigger a memory, while the removal of these neurons can erase the memory.

Miller, Greg. “” Smithsonian Magazine. Smithsonian Magazine, May 2010. Web. 29 Apr. 2013.

Karim Nader, a postdoctoral researcher at New York University, proposes the idea that the act of recalling a memory causes that memory to rebuild itself. Known as reconsolidation, it is presumed that building a new memory and re-coding an old one both involve building new neuronal proteins at the synapse. Simply stated, each time a memory is recalled, at least part of the memory will need to be completely rebuilt. This could explain the inaccuracy of memories each time they are recalled.

Ricker, Jeffrey. “PSY 101 – Introduction to Psychology by Jeffry Ricker, Ph.D.” PSY 101 Introduction to Psychology by Jeffry Ricker PhD. WordPress, 5 Nov. 2011. Web. 1 May 2013.

Jeffrey Ricker (Ph.D.) explains in his blog a process that encodes memories in the long-term store – elaborative rehearsal. Elaborative rehearsal is thinking about the memory’s meaning as well as making connections between it and past experiences already in the long-term storage. Different from maintenance rehearsal, which involves remembering information due to repetition, elaborative rehearsal results in stronger, more durable long-term memories.

Ericsson, K. A., and Walter Kintsch. “Long-Term Working Memory.” Long-Term Working Memory. Rutgers, n.d. Web. 1 May 2013.

An article by the members of the Florida State University and the University of Colorado at Boulder, this gives a more in-depth explanation of the human’s long-term memory and proposes that more efficient storage and retrieval characteristics can be acquired for the long-term store by “skilled performers”.

“Long-Term Memory.” Brain Training Software, Brain Fitness, Brain Games, BrainHQ. Posit Science, n.d. Web. 2 May 2013.

Another article focusing on long-term memory, this explains the various forms of long-term memory – specifically, explicit and implicit memories. Explicit memories are those that one can consciously remember (an event or fact), while implicit memories are those that one can perform without thinking about (i.e. – riding a bike).

Baron, Jonathan. “Morality and Decision Making – Springer.” Morality and Decision Making – Springer. Theory and Decision Library, n.d. Web. 3 May 2013.

This paper by Jonathan Baron talks about the definition of morality and how it can affect a person’s behavior. This article makes us wonder why some people lie, cheat, or do things that they know are against their morals, while others will stick to their values.

Schultz, Steven. “Princeton – Weekly Bulletin 10/22/01 – What Drives Moral Decision-making?” Princeton – Weekly Bulletin 10/22/01 – What Drives Moral Decision-making? Princeton University, n.d. Web. 3 May 2013.

A look into both the philosophical and scientific (specifically neuroscience) aspect of human behavior, this article attempts to explain the connection between the two and how that drives moral behavior in human beings. It also compares the different levels of emotional response that people give in certain circumstances, and sees if there is a connection between that and the way they behave. The article also presents one of the most well-known behavioral “tests” ever made and – the Trolley Problem (involving an uncontrollable trolley, five workmen, and a bystander) and study the puzzling results.


A Look into the Minds

In a paticular Harvard Gazette article (, Walter Issacson deconstructs the genius and dedication of some of the world’s most well-known names. Reading through it, this paticular line by Steve Jobs really struck me:

“…The history of creativity, the history of technology, is like a river from which you can take things. But in the end, what’s most important is what you put back.”

I think it’s safe for me to say that during his lifetime, Steve Jobs made a enormous contribution to the world we all live in today. It seems, however, that his main drive was not to solely create a device that would make him famous, but to also put something important and revolutionary back into the “river”. Jobs’ goal was to take something that already existed and turn it into something even greater. It was stated that he was a perfectionist, and all parts of his creations had to be the greatest it could be before Jobs would release the item. If you’re going to do something, you might as well do it well. This mindset only enhanced and bettered the already great devices that Steve Jobs had created and made the contribution back to the “river” only better.

I’ve been focusing on psychology for the most part of this project and how experiences can have a big effect on a person’s actions and thoughts. With the things that I’ll learn and discover throughout the course of this time, I’ll then know more about how to help a person reduce the amount of a negativity in their thinking/actions and increase positivity – a contribution to the “river”. Understanding how an experience or action can affect a person’s thought perception would also help me see the various perspectives that people are coming from and understand why they think the way they do. In those cases, I may not be as quick to judge when a person’s view differs from mine or stubbornly object if someone disagrees with me. With psychology, my goal now is to learn new things, so I would become more open to different perspectives of thinking and be able to help others with it. Small drops of water turned into rain.


There’s been a lot of stumbling lately and I’ve found some extremely interesting articles and blogs about various psychological actions, motivations, and behavior. To name a few…

This was an article done about a woman, Candy Chang, in Las Vegas who started an ‘art’ project called “Confessions”. She invited people from all over to come to her studio gallery and anonymously write confessions on wooden plaques in the privacy of confession booths. At the end of the exhibition, more than 1,500 wooden plaques of fears, struggles, and regrets, had been submitted and hung on the walls of the gallery. This article gave me a little more insight into what motivates people to do what they do; in this case, sharing confessions that up until that point, most likely had never been spoken before.

Also created by Candy Chang, “Before I Die” was a project that allowed normal every-day people to, again, write anonymously on the walls of an abandoned house about things that they wished to complete before they died. According to Chang, “People’s responses made me laugh out loud and they made me tear up. They consoled me during my toughest times. I understood my neighbors in new and enlightening ways, and the wall reminded me that I’m not alone as I try to make sense of my life.” As of 2011, 100 Before I Die walls have been created in over 10 languages and in over 30 countries.

The positive receival of these two projects make me wonder some things.

Why is it that anonymity motivates people to possibly share their greatest secrets, and share it so quickly? What’s so appealing about it to the human mind that makes people want to confess struggles and ambitions that they never would have before?

Jerry Brito, a senior researcher at George Mason University, wrote a list of the top ten myths about introverts and explained how they were all false. It was interesting to look into the thought processes of people, and how they’re actually different from the stereotypical beliefs. The article also provided reasons and motivations for why people act/interact the way they do.

Some Resources..

Looking through some websites and blogs written by people more informed in the area of psychology than I am, I came across a few that I found really interesting and am now following:

Psychology Today – – An extremely broad website on psychology that has multiple topic streams I can look into, and within those topic streams, various articles and blog posts written by people all over the world. I’ve been particularly drawn to the writings under “Behavioral Economics”

The Situationist – – According to its own blog, “’The situation’ refers to causally significant features around us and within us that we do not notice or believe are relevant in explaining human behavior.” Since my main focus is one the triggers and motivation of human behavior/thought processes, this blog was one I could not pass on.

Research Digest – – a blog that posts the latest findings in the field of psychology.

Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development

Mobley, Caryl E., and Judy Johnson-Russell. “Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development.” Theory-Directed Nursing Practice (2005): 115.

I was looking through some theories on how small events and variations in

bringing up children, and came across Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development. According to it, a person has to go through a series of stages and attempt to master a “life concept” in each one. If they do, the person will develop something commonly referred to as ego strength (a sense of confidence/mastery). Failure to do so, according to Erickson, will give the person a sense of incompetence. Something as simple as gaining more control over their clothing selection by the age of 5 can heavily affect a child’s sense of security and self-adequacy.


These theories have been extremely interesting and insightful, and Erickson’s theory is only the first I’ve come across. It’s helped me better understand the sources of people’s actions and thought processes; I have more of an idea of why a person does what they do. More to come soon!

Unveiling the Psycret

The psycret to what?

To be honest, I’m still not completely sure.

As of now, I want to look into how certain environments, circumstances/situations, events have an effect on a person’s thought process, perception, and behavior. I’ve been reading some autobiographical books by people who’ve lived with diseases like schizophrenia, or lived with people who have it, and how that has impacted their life. I’ve also looked into some articles about human behavior and our mental thought processes, though I’m still floating around from topic to topic.

What I want to immerse myself within is currently tentative and I’m not completely sure of what I want to do just yet. More to come